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Background and Evidence References

1 Tremblay, M., Aubert, S., Barnes, J.D., Saunders, T.J., Carson, V., Latimer-Cheung, A.E. (2017). Sedentary behavior research network (SBRN) – Terminology consensus project process and outcome. International Journal of Behavioural Nutrition and Physical Activity, 14: 75.

2 LeBlanc, A.G., Spence, J.C., Carson, V., Gorber, A.C., Dillman, C., Janssen, I., et al. (2012). Systematic review of sedentary behaviour and health indicators in the early years. Appl Physiol Nutr Metab, 37(4):753-72. http://www.nrcresearchpress.com/doi/full/10.1139/h2012063#.WVULf_nysdU

3 LeBlanc, A.G., Spence, J.C., Carson, V., Gorber, A.C., Dillman, C., Janssen, I., et al. (2012). Systematic review of sedentary behaviour and health indicators in the early years. Appl Physiol Nutr Metab, 37(4):753-72. http://www.nrcresearchpress.com/doi/full/10.1139/h2012063#.WVULf_nysdU

4 Carson, V., Hunter, S., Kuzik, N., Gray, C.E., Poitras, V.J., Chaput, J.P., et al. (2016). Systematic review of sedentary behaviour and health indicators in school-aged children and youth: An update. Appl Physiol Nutr Metab, 41:S24-S265. dx.doi.org/10.1139/apnm-2015-0630

5 LeBlanc, A.G., Spence, J.C., Carson, V., Gorber, A.C., Dillman, C., Janssen, I., et al. (2012). Systematic review of sedentary behaviour and health indicators in the early years. Appl Physiol Nutr Metab, 37(4):753-72. http://www.nrcresearchpress.com/doi/full/10.1139/h2012063#.WVULf_nysdU

6 Carson, V., Hunter, S., Kuzik, N., Gray, C.E., Poitras, V.J., Chaput, J.P., et al. (2016). Systematic review of sedentary behaviour and health indicators in school-aged children and youth: An update. Appl Physiol Nutr Metab, 41:S24-S265. dx.doi.org/10.1139/apnm-2015-0630

7 Suchert, V., Hanewinkel, R., & Isensee, B. (2015). Sedentary behavior and indicators of mental health in school-aged children and adolescents: A systematic review. Prev Med, 76: 48-57.

8 Canadian Society for Exercise Physiology. (2011). Canadian Sedentary Behaviour Guidelines. http://www.csep.ca/view.asp?ccid=508

9 Tremblay, M.A., Carson, V., Chaput, J.P., Connor Gorber, S., Dinh, T., Duggan, M. et al. (2016). Canadian 24-hour movement guidelines for children and youth: An integration of physical activity, sedentary behaviour, and sleep. Appl Phsyiol Nutr Metab, 41 S311-S327. dx.doi.org/10.1139/apnm-2016-0151

10 Canadian Society for Exercise Physiology. (2016). 24-Hour Movement Guidelines. http://www.csep.ca/en/guidelines/canadian-24-hour-movement-guidelines

11 Canadian Pediatric Society. (2017). Screen time and young children: Promoting health and development in a digital world. http://www.cps.ca/en/documents/position/screen-time-and-young-children

12 ParticipACTION. (2016). Are Canadian kids too tired to move? The 2016 ParticipACTION Report Card on Physical Activity for Children and Youth. Toronto: ParticipACTION. https://www.participaction.com/en-ca/thought-leadership/report-card/2016

13 Pyper, E., Harrington, D.W., Manson, H.M. (2016). The impact of different types of parental support behaviours on child physical activity, healthy eating and screen time: A cross-sectional study. BMC Public Health, 16: 568. https://bmcpublichealth.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12889-016-3245-0

14 Pyper, E., Harrington, D.W., Manson, H.M. (2016). The impact of different types of parental support behaviours on child physical activity, healthy eating and screen time: A cross-sectional study. BMC Public Health, 16: 568. https://bmcpublichealth.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12889-016-3245-0

15 Pyper, E., Harrington, D.W., Manson, H.M. (2016). The impact of different types of parental support behaviours on child physical activity, healthy eating and screen time: A cross-sectional study. BMC Public Health, 16: 568. https://bmcpublichealth.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12889-016-3245-0

16 Canadian Pediatric Society. (2017). Screen time and young children: Promoting health and development in a digital world. http://www.cps.ca/en/documents/position/screen-time-and-young-children

17 Chaput, J.P., Leduc, G., Boyer, C., Belanger, P., LeBlanc, A.G., Borghese, M.M., et al. (2014). Electronic screens in children’s bedrooms and adiposity, physical activity and sleep: Do the number and type of electronic devices matter? Canadian Journal of Public Health, 105(4): e273-279.

18 Chaput, J.P., Gray, C.E., Poitras, V.J., Carson, V., Gruber, R., Olds, T., et al. (2016). Systematic review of the relationships between sleep duration and health indicators in school-aged children and youth. Appl Physiol Nutr Metab, 41(6 Suppl 3): S266-82. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27306433

19 Canadian Society for Exercise Physiology. (2016). 24-Hour Movement Guidelines. http://www.csep.ca/en/guidelines/canadian-24-hour-movement-guidelines

20 Tremblay, M.A., Carson, V., Chaput, J.P., Connor Gorber, S., Dinh, T., Duggan, M. et al. (2016). Canadian 24-hour movement guidelines for children and youth: An integration of physical activity, sedentary behaviour, and sleep. Appl Phsyiol Nutr Metab, 41 S311-S327. dx.doi.org/10.1139/apnm-2016-0151

21 Common Sense Media. (2013). Zero to eight: Children’s media use in America 2013. A Common Sense Media research study. https://www.commonsensemedia.org/research/zero-to-eight-childrens-media-use-in-america-2013

22 Common Sense Media. (2013). The Common Sense census: Media use by tweens and teens. https://www.commonsensemedia.org/research/the-common-sense-census-media-use-by-tweens-and-teens

23 Chaput, J.P., Leduc, G., Boyer, C., Belanger, P., LeBlanc, A.G., Borghese, M.M., et al. (2014). Electronic screens in children’s bedrooms and adiposity, physical activity and sleep: Do the number and type of electronic devices matter? Canadian Journal of Public Health, 105(4): e273-279.

24 Chaput, J.P. (2016). Is sleep deprivation a contributor to obesity in children? Eat Weight Disord, 21: 5-11.

25 Chaput, J.P. (2016). Is sleep deprivation a contributor to obesity in children? Eat Weight Disord, 21: 5-11.

26 Pyper, E., Harrington, D.W., Manson, H.M. (2017). Do parents’ support behaviours predict whether or not their children get sufficient sleep? A cross-sectional study. BMC Public Health, 17: 432. https://bmcpublichealth.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12889-017-4334-4

27 Canadian Pediatric Society. (2017). Screen time and young children: Promoting health and development in a digital world. http://www.cps.ca/en/documents/position/screen-time-and-young-children

28 Potvin Kent, M. interview as cited in: Heart and Stroke Foundation of Canada. (2017). The Kids are not Alright: 2017 Report on the Health of Canadians. http://www.heartandstroke.ca/-/media/pdf-files/canada/2017-heart-month/heartandstroke-reportonhealth2017.ashx 

29 Sadeghirad, B., Duhaney, T., Motaghipisheh, S., Campbell, N.R.C, Johnston, B.C. (2016). Influence of unhealthy food and beverage marketing on children’s dietary intake and preference: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized trials.

30 Coon, K.A., Goldberg, J., Rogers, B.L. & Tucker, K.L. (2001). Relationship between use of television during meals and children’s food consumption patterns. Pediatrics, 107(1). http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/content/107/1/e7 

31 Liang, T., Kuhle, S., & Veugelers, P.J. (2009). Nutrition and body weights of Canadian children watching television and eating while watching television. Public Health Nutr, 12(12): 2457-63.

32 Avery, A., Anderson, C., & McCullough, F. (2017). Associations between children’s diet quality and watching television during meal or snack consumption: A systematic review. Maternal and Child Nutrition. http://doi.org/10.1111/mcn.12428 

33 Marsh, S., Ni Mhurchi, C. & Maddison, R. (2013). The non-advertising effects of screen-based sedentary activities on acute eating behaviours in children, adolescents, and young adults. A systematic review. Appetite, 71: 259-73.

34 de Jong, E., Visscher, T.L., HiraSing, R.A., Heymans, M.W., Seidell, J.C., Renders, C.M. (2013). Association between TV viewing, computer use and overweight, determinants and competing activities of screen time in 4- to 13-year-old children. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22158265 

35 Avery, A., Anderson, C., & McCullough, F. (2017). Associations between children’s diet quality and watching television during meal or snack consumption: A systematic review. Maternal and Child Nutrition. http://doi.org/10.1111/mcn.12428 

36 Feldman, S., Eisenberg, M. E., Neumark-Sztainer, D., & Story, M. (2007). Associations between Watching TV during Family Meals and Dietary Intake Among Adolescents. Journal of Nutrition Education and Behavior, 39(5), 257–263. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jneb.2007.04.181 

37 Gillman, M.W., Rifas-Shiman, S.L., Frazier, A.L., Rockett, H.R.H., Camargo, C.A., Field, A.E., et al. (2000). Family dinner and diet quality among older children and adolescents. Arch Fam Med, 9(3): 235-40. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10728109 

38 World Cancer Research Fund and American Institute for Cancer Research. (2007). Food, nutrition, physical activity, and the prevention of cancer: a global perspective. Washington, DC: AIRC.

39 Hung, H.C., Joshipura, K.J., Jiang, R., et al. (2004). Fruit and vegetable intake and risk of major chronic disease. J Natl Cancer Inst, 96(21): 1577-84.

40 Hall, J.N., Moore, S., Harper, S.B., Lynch, J.W. (2009). Global variability in fruit and vegetable consumption. Am J Prev Med, 36(5): 402-409, e5

41 Shields, M. (2005). Measured obesity: overweight Canadian children and adolescents. Nutrition: findings from the Canadian Community Health Survey. Ottawa, ON: Statistics Canada.

42 Health Canada. Canada’s Food Guide. https://www.canada.ca/en/health-canada/services/food-nutrition/canada-food-guide/food-guide-basics/much-food-you-need-every-day.html 

43 Pyper, E., Harrington, D.W., Manson, H.M. (2016). The impact of different types of parental support behaviours on child physical activity, healthy eating and screen time: A cross-sectional study. BMC Public Health, 16: 568. https://bmcpublichealth.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12889-016-3245-0 

44 Canadian Pediatric Society. (2017). Screen time and young children: Promoting health and development in a digital world. http://www.cps.ca/en/documents/position/screen-time-and-young-children 

45 Tremblay, M.S., Gray, C., Babcock, S., Barnes, J., Bradstreet, C.C., et al. (2015). Position statement on active outdoor play. Int J Environ Res Public Health, 12(6): 6475-505. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26062040 

46 Poitras, V.J., Gray, C.E., Borghese, M.M., Carson, V., Chaput, J.P., Janssen, I., et al. (2016). Systematic review of the relationships between objectively-measured physical activity and health indicators in school-aged children and youth. Appl Physio Nutr Metab, 41(6 Suppl 3): S197-239. http://doi.org/10.1139/apnm-2015-0663 

47 Canadian Society for Exercise Physiology. (2016). 24-Hour Movement Guidelines. http://www.csep.ca/en/guidelines/canadian-24-hour-movement-guidelines 

48 Tremblay, M.A., Carson, V., Chaput, J.P., Connor Gorber, S., Dinh, T., Duggan, M. et al. (2016). Canadian 24-hour movement guidelines for children and youth: An integration of physical activity, sedentary behaviour, and sleep. Appl Physiol Nutr Metab, 41 S311-S327. http://www.nrcresearchpress.com/doi/10.1139/apnm-2016-0151#.Wbk8u4TyuUk 

49 Schmidt, M. E., Haines, J., O’Brien, A., McDonald, J., Price, S., Sherry, B. and Taveras, E. M. (2012), Systematic Review of Effective Strategies for Reducing Screen Time Among Young Children. Obesity, 20: 1338–1354. http://doi.org/10.1038/oby.2011.348 

50 Ni Mhurchu, C., Maddision, R., Jiang, Y., Jull, A., Prapavessis, H., & Rogers, A. (2008). Couch potatoes to jumping beans: A pilot study of the effect of active video games on physical activity in children. International journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity, 5: 8. https://ijbnpa.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1479-5868-5-8 

51 Chaput, J.P., Saunders, T.J, Mathieu, M.E., Henderson, M., Tremblay, M.S., O’Loughlin, J. et al. (2013). Combined associations between moderate to vigorous physical activity and sedentary behaviour with cardio metabolic risk factors in children. Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, 38(5): 477-483. https://doi.org/10.1139/apnm-2012-0382 

52 Tremblay, M., Aubert, S., Barnes, J.D., Saunders, T.J., Carson, V., Latimer-Cheung, A.E. (2017). Sedentary behavior research network (SBRN) – Terminology consensus project process and outcome. International Journal of Behavioural Nutrition and Physical Activity, 14: 75.

53 Serrano-Sanchez, J.A., Marti-Truijillo, S., Lera-Navarro, A., Dorado, Garcia, C., Gonzalez-Henriquez, J.J. & Sanchis-Moysi, J. (2011). Associations between screen time and physical activity among Spanish adolescents. PLoS ONE 6(9): e24453. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0024453 

54 Canadian Pediatric Society. (2017). Screen time and young children: Promoting health and development in a digital world. http://www.cps.ca/en/documents/position/screen-time-and-young-children 

55 Chassiakos, Y., Radesky, J., Christakis, D., Moreno, M., Cross, C. et al. (2016). Children and Adolescents and Digital Media. American Academy of Pediatrics, 138 (5) http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/content/early/2016/10/19/peds.2016-2593 

56 Chassiakos, Y., Radesky, J., Christakis, D., Moreno, M., Cross, C. et al. (2016). Children and Adolescents and Digital Media. American Academy of Pediatrics, 138 (5) http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/content/early/2016/10/19/peds.2016-2593 

57Common Sense Media. (2013). Zero to eight: Children’s media use in America 2013. A Common Sense Media research study. https://www.commonsensemedia.org/research/zero-to-eight-childrens-media-use-in-america-2013 

58 Pagani, L. et al. (2016). Prospective associations between televiewing at toddlerhood and later self-reported social impairment at middle school in a Canadian longitudinal cohort born in 1997/1998. Psychological Medicine. 46:16 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27618949 

59 Christakis, D. et al. (2013). Modifying Media Content for Preschool Children: A Randomized Controlled Trial. Pediatrics, 131:3 https://iths.pure.elsevier.com/en/publications/modifying-media-content-for-preschool-children-a-randomized-contr 

60 Uhls, Y. (2014). Five days at outdoor education camp without screens improves preteen skills with nonverbal emotion cues. Computers in Human Behavior. 39 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2014.05.036 

61 Canadian Pediatric Society. (2017). Screen time and young children: Promoting health and development in a digital world. http://www.cps.ca/en/documents/position/screen-time-and-young-children 

62 Canadian Pediatric Society. (2017). Screen time and young children: Promoting health and development in a digital world. http://www.cps.ca/en/documents/position/screen-time-and-young-children 

63 Ginsburg, K. (2007). The Importance of Play in Promoting Healthy Child Development and Maintaining Strong Parent-Child Bonds. Pediatrics, 119(1) http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/content/119/1/182 

64 Ginsburg, K. (2007). The Importance of Play in Promoting Healthy Child Development and Maintaining Strong Parent-Child Bonds. Pediatrics, 119(1) http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/content/119/1/182 

65 Ginsburg, K. (2007). The Importance of Play in Promoting Healthy Child Development and Maintaining Strong Parent-Child Bonds. Pediatrics, 119(1) http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/content/119/1/182 

66 Kostyrka-Allchrone, K., Cooper, N., & Simpson, A. (2017). The relationship between television exposure and children’s cognition and behaviour: A systematic review. Developmental Review, 44: 19-58. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0273229717300011 

67 Schmidt M., Pempek T., Kirkorian H., Lund A., & Anderson D. (2008). The effects of background television on the toy play behavior of very young children. Child Development, 79(4):1137–1151. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18717911

68 Scholastic Canada. (2017). Kids & Family Reading Report, Canadian Edition. scholastic.ca/readingreport

69 Common Sense Media. (2014). Children, teens and reading. A Common Sense Media research brief. https://www.commonsensemedia.org/research/children-teens-and-reading 

70 Delmas, C., Platat, C., Schweter, B., Wagner, A. Oujaa, M., & Simon, C. (2007). Association between television in bedroom and adiposity throughout adolescence. Obesity, 15: 2495-2503. As cited in: Maitland, C., Stratton, G., Foster, S., Braham, R., & Rosenberg, M. (2013). A place for play? The influence of the home physical environment on children’s physical activity and sedentary behaviour. International Journal of Behavioural Nutrition and Physical Activity, 10: 99.

71 Scholastic Canada. (2017). Kids & Family Reading Report, Canadian Edition. scholastic.ca/readingreport

72 Wahi, G., Parkin, P.C., Beyene, J., Uleryk, E.M., & Birken, C.S. (2011). Effectiveness of interventions aimed at reducing screen time in children: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med, 65(11): 979-986. http://jamanetwork.com/journals/jamapediatrics/fullarticle/1107640 

73 Gentile, D., Reimer, R., Nathanson, A., Walsh, D., and Eisenmann, J. (2014). Protective effects of parental monitoring of children’s media use. JAMA Pediatr, 168(5):479. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24686493

74 Biddle, S., Petrolini, I., and Pearson, N. (2014). Interventions designed to reduce sedentary behaviours in young people: A review of reviews. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 48: 182. http://bjsm.bmj.com/content/48/3/182

75 Marsh, S., Foley, L., Wilks, D., and Maddison, R. (2014). Family-based interventions for reducing sedentary time in youth: A systematic review of randomized controlled trials. Obesity Prevention, 15: 117. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmedhealth/PMH0060369/

76 Biddle, S., Petrolini, I., and Pearson, N. (2014). Interventions designed to reduce sedentary behaviours in young people: A review of reviews. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 48: 182. http://bjsm.bmj.com/content/48/3/182

77 Marsh, S., Foley, L., Wilks, D., and Maddison, R. (2014). Family-based interventions for reducing sedentary time in youth: A systematic review of randomized controlled trials. Obesity Prevention, 15: 117. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24102891

78 Downing, K.L., Hnatiuk, J.A., Hinkley, T., Salmon, J., & Hesketh, K.D. (2016). Interventions to reduce sedentary behaviour in 0–5-year-olds: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials. Br J Sports Med, Published Online First: 06 October 2016. http://bjsm.bmj.com/content/bjsports/early/2016/10/06/bjsports-2016-096634.full.pdf

79 Biddle, S., Petrolini, I., and Pearson, N. (2014). Interventions designed to reduce sedentary behaviours in young people: A review of reviews. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 48: 182. http://bjsm.bmj.com/content/48/3/182

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